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UNIT 7.A EXTRAORDINARY SCHOOL FOR BOYS

GRAMMAR:

FIRST CONDITIONAL AND FUTURE TIME CLAUSES + WHEN, UNTIL, ETC.

1.- Affirmative

Subject + will    +   if + present simple

↓                               ↓

Main clause               If clause

I’ll go to London if I have money.

If I don’t get into Cambridge, my parents will kill me (if+present simple + subject + will).

I’ll only come if you have time (Sólo iré si tienes tiempo).

2.- Imperative

Call me if you need some help:  imperative    +    if + present simple

3.- Negative

Subject + wont’t   +   if + present simple

I won’t go to London if I fail Maths.

They won’t give me a place unless I get 3 As (No me darán plaza al menos que obtenga 3 As).

We won’t call you unless we have a problem.

4.- Interrogative

Will + subject   + if + present simple + ?

Will you go to bed if I read you a story?

Who will I call if I have a problem?

What will we do if we don’t have enough money?

5.- Future time clauses

Posibility: If I see Mary I’ll give her your message.

Sure: When I see Mary, I’ll give her your message (ya no es una “conditional sentence”, es futuro).

When

As soon as

Before

After

Until

+ present simple + will (won’t) + infinitive

+ imperative

Complete these sentences with appropiate phrases:

1.- I’ll call you this afternoon if…

2.- Next weekend we’ll go skiing unless….

3.- Will you help me if…?

4.- You won’t pass your exams unless…

5.- If my parents lend me the money…

6.- If the weather is good on Sunday…

7.- — unless you tell me the truth.

8.- If the course is free, will…?

Key (For example):

1.- I’ll call you this afernoo if you are at home.

2.- Next weekend we’ll go skiing unless it doesn’t snow.

3.- Will you help me if you have free time?

4.- You won’t pass your exams unless you study a lot.

5.- If my parents lend me the money I’ll buy a flat.

6.- If the weather is good on Sunday we’ll go out.

7.- I can’t help you unles you tell me the truth.

8.- If the course is free, will we sign up for it?

Translate the following sentences into English:

1.- ¿Qué le dirás a Ana cuando venga?

2.- Nos iremos en cuanto acabemos.

3.- Le llamaré (por teléfono) antes de que se vaya al extranjero.

4.- No empezarán a trabajar hasta que no acabe la película.

5.- ¿Qué haremos cuando tengamos 70 años?

Key:

1.- What will you tell Ana when she comes?

2.- We’ll leave as soon as we finish.

3.- I’ll phone him/her before he/she goes abroad.

4.- They won’t start to work until the film finishes.

5.- What will we do when we are 70?

 

VOCABULARY

Vocabulary and expresions

Schooldays

Naughty: malo (referido a un niño)

The break: pausa, recreo

The playground: el patio de recreo

Phsical Education = PE

A foreign  language

Religious Education = RE

Arts a Design

Literatura /’lɪtrətʃə/

Information & Comunication Technology = ICT

5 times 18 divided by 4 = 5 by 18 divided by 4 = 5×18/4

Compulsory = obligatory ≠ optional

Private school fee(s) = matrícula (tasas)

School year ≠ course (“course” se refiere a contenidos más que a duración o año escolar)

Take/do/sit an exam

Do/take a degree in + subject (nunca study a degree)

Carrer: carrera profesional (nunca se refiere a la parte de estudios)

Post-graduate course/degrees

A master’s degree

Higher (superior) /’həɪə/

Mixed ≠ single sex

To behave well ≠ to behave badly

Be punished (pasiv.)

To punish sb (for sth)

A punishment

Corporal punishment

Write lines: copiar frases

To smack sb: dar un manotazo

To pull sb’s ear: estirar la oreja

Marks → 10,9,8…4,3… (notas evaluadas con números)

Grades →A, B, C, D (notas evaluadas con letras, “D” es suspenso, fail)

Catch up (with sb): Ponerse al día

To learn sth/to do sth

To motivate sb

To improve sth

To make progress

To take risks

To manage to do sth: conseguir o lograr hacer algo

To success ≠ to fail

To motivate sb

Be thrilled = very excited

Nervous = worried, anxious (tiene un sentido negativo, si un está nervioso porque le van a dar un premio, no puede usar esta palabra, sí to be thrilled).

 

UNIT 7.B – IDEAL HOME

GRAMMAR: SECOND CONDITIONAL

First conditional: If I have time, I’ll help you (Si tengo tiempo, te ayudaré).

Second conditional: If I had time, I would help you (Si tuviera tiempo, te ayudaría) ⇒ hypothetical, imaginary

1.- Affirmative:

Would + infinitive + if + past simple: I would go to London if I won the lottery.

I’d go if you came with me!

2.- Negative:

Wouldn’t + infinitive + if + past simple: I wouldn’t go to London if I won the lottery.

I wouldn’t go if you didn’t come with me!

3.- Interrogative:

Would/wouldn’t + subject + infinitive + if + past simple + ?: Would you go to London if you won the lottery?

Wouldn’t you go to Australia if you had more money? (No irías a Australia si tuvieras más dinero?).

4.- If I were you (Si yo fuera tú)

If I were you, I’d quit my job and travel the world (Si yo fuera tú, dejaría mi trabajo y viajaría por el mundo).

I wouldn’t visit the History Museum if I were you. It’s expensive! (No visitaría el Museo de Historia si yo fuera tú. ¡Es caro!).

If I were him, I’d never lie to you (Si yo fuera él, nunca te mentiría).

What would you do if ou were me? (Qué harías si fueras yo?)

If I

he

she

was

were*

older, I

he

she

would travel abroad

El pasado del verbo “to be” para la 3ª persona es “was”, pero para los condicionales se puede también usar “were” (es como un resto que queda del subjuntivo en inglés).

If I were you, I would go home: En esta expresión no se podrá utilizar “was”, puesto que si estamos imaginando algo que es imposible (yo nunca podré ser tú), sólo admitirá la forma del “were”.

 

VOCABULARY

Semi-detached house: casa pareada

Detached house: casa individual, chalé

Bungalow: casa de una planta, bungaló

Flat (UK) = apartment (USA)

Hut: cabaña

Tent: tienda de campaña

Trailer, mobile home: caravana

Cottage: casa de campo

Cosy (UK) = cozy (USA)

 

PRACTICAL ENGLISH: MAKE SUGGESTIONS

1.- What about/How about + verb+ing (gerund) + ?

What about going to the park? = How about going to the park?

2.- How about + present simple + ?

How about we meet on Monday? (¿Qué tal si quedamos el lunes?)

3.- We often use how about and what about + noun phrase when we make suggestions about food or drink. These suggestions are invitations:

How about some lunch?

What about a coffee?

4.- Why not…? Why don’t…?

Why not to make a general suggestion: Why not buy a new car? (Muy usado en publicidad).

Why don’t to make a specific suggestion: Why don’t we go abroad?

5.- Let’s… and Let’s not…

Let’s make a pizza tonight!

Let’s not spend all night talking about my problems!

6.- Could

We often use phrases with could to make suggestions. Some are neutral, some are strong. The negative form, couldn’t, is stronger than the affirmative form.

We could go to the cinema next week.

7.- I thought we might/could

We can use phrases with I thought we might or I thought we could to make weak suggestions, especially when we don’t want to sound too forceful.

I thought we might go to the theatre = I though we could go to the theatre (He pensado que podríamos ir al teatro).

8.- Shall we ?

Shall we eat Chinese tonight?